These are usually minor. In clinical trials, only 0. People who have myasthenia gravis , a condition that causes muscle weakness, may develop worsening symptoms or breathing problems. People with a history of allergic reactions to macrolides or ketolides should not take azithromycin. People should not rely on azithromycin to treat syphilis. A person should speak to a doctor about any existing heart, kidney, and liver conditions before taking azithromycin, including an irregular heartbeat and especially QT prolongation.
A large cohort study found a small increase in the risk of cardiovascular death among people taking azithromycin. The risk was higher among those with other risk factors for heart disease , such as smoking, low physical activity levels, and a high body mass index BMI. The study reported that when compared with amoxicillin, there were 47 additional cardiovascular deaths per 1 million azithromycin prescriptions. Among people with the highest risk of heart disease, there were more deaths per 1 million courses of azithromycin.
This suggests that other antibiotics, such as amoxicillin, may be a safer option for people with heart disease or certain types of heart arrythmias. In , the FDA issued a warning about the long term use of azithromycin in people with certain blood or lymph node cancers who have stem cell transplants. Emerging research has suggested that azithromycin may increase the risk of cancer relapse in these people. Following a stem cell transplant, some people take azithromycin to reduce the risk of an inflammatory lung condition called bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.
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The FDA have not approved azithromycin for this use, however. Rarely, azithromycin can cause liver toxicity. People should stop taking the drug and call their doctor if they develop any symptoms of liver problems, including dark urine, itching, or yellow eyes. In newborns younger than 42 days old , azithromycin may cause a dangerous condition called infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.
Caregivers should contact a doctor if a baby becomes irritable or vomits when eating. For example, using azithromycin while taking nelfinavir, which is a drug that helps treat HIV , can increase the risk of liver abnormalities and hearing problems. A person should tell a doctor about all current medications, supplements, and remedies before taking azithromycin. Always speak to a doctor before stopping taking medications. Studies of animals who received very large doses of azithromycin did not find an increased risk of miscarriage or birth defects.
Although it is generally safe to use when breastfeeding, azithromycin may cause diarrhea, vomiting, or a rash in some babies. A person should tell a doctor if they are pregnant, might be pregnant, or are breastfeeding before taking azithromycin. If a nursing infant develops side effects while the parent is taking azithromycin, call a doctor for advice. The brand name version of azithromycin Zithromax is typically more expensive than the generic version. Azithromycin treats many of the same infections that drugs such as penicillin and amoxicillin can treat.
A doctor may prescribe azithromycin as an alternative to other antibiotics because it typically requires a shorter course. It is also a good option for people with a history of allergies to other medications, or when other antibiotics do not work. Mechanism of Action.
Azithromycin (Oral Route) Proper Use - Mayo Clinic
View Zithromax mechanism of action for pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics details. MIMS Class. ATC Classification. J01FA10 - azithromycin ; Belongs to the class of macrolides. Used in the systemic treatment of infections. Regulatory Classification for Malaysia A- Group A Can only be sold by a licensed wholesaler to a pharmacist or to another licensed wholesaler or by a licensed wholesaler to be immediately exported to a purchaser outside Malaysia. B - Group B Can be dispensed only against prescription of a Registered Medical Practitioner, Dentist, or Veterinary Surgeon, as the case may be and with the prescription in the correct form as required by the law.
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Zithromax (Azithromycin) Use in Children
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Zithromax infusion mg. Immediate-release: mg orally once a day for 3 days Extended-release: 2 g orally once as a single dose Comment: Extended-release formulations should be taken on an empty stomach. Use: Treatment of mild to moderate acute bacterial sinusitis due to H influenzae, M catarrhalis, or S pneumoniae.
Gonococcal urethritis and cervicitis : Immediate-release: 2 g orally once Use: Treatment of mild to moderate urethritis and cervicitis due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC Recommendations : Immediate-release : -Recommended regimen: 1 g orally once as a single dose plus ceftriaxone -Alternative regimen: 1 g orally once as a single dose plus cefixime Comments: -The alternative regimen may be used for uncomplicated infections if ceftriaxone is unavailable.
Uses : -Uncomplicated gonococcal infections of the pharynx, cervix, urethra, and rectum -Treatment of gonococcal conjunctivitis -Treatment of arthritis and arthritis-dermatitis syndrome caused by disseminated gonococcal infection -Treatment of gonococcal meningitis and endocarditis. Non-gonococcal urethritis and cervicitis : -Immediate-release: 1 g orally once Comment: A 1 g oral dose given once a week for 3 weeks may be effective in the treatment of lymphogranuloma venereum due to Chlamydia trachomatis.
Uses : -Treatment of mild to moderate urethritis and cervicitis due to C trachomatis -Treatment of nongonococcal urethritis, cervicitis, and chlamydial infections. Immediate-release: 1 g orally once Comments : -The efficacy of this drug in female patients with chancroid has not been established. Use: Treatment of genital ulcer disease in men due to Haemophilus ducreyi chancroid.
Use: Treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease due to C trachomatis, N gonorrhoeae, or Mycoplasma hominis. Immediate-release: mg orally once a day for 3 days OR mg orally as a single dose on day 1, followed by mg orally once a day on days 2 to 5 Uses : -Mild to moderate acute bacterial exacerbations of COPD -Treatment of mild to moderate acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis due to H influenzae, M catarrhalis, or S pneumoniae.
Immediate-release : mg orally once a week Comment: This drug may be given with rifabutin.
Use: Preventing the first episode of disseminated MAC disease. Use: Alternative treatment of MAC pulmonary disease. US CDC Recommendations : Immediate-release: 1 g orally once a week OR mg orally once a day for at least 3 weeks and until all lesions have completely healed Comments : -Patients diagnosed with granuloma inguinale should be tested for HIV. US CDC Recommendations : Immediate-release: 1 g orally once as a single dose, in conjunction with ceftriaxone plus metronidazole or tinidazole Use: Postexposure prophylaxis of sexually transmitted diseases in survivors of sexual assault.
Uses : -Immunization against pertussis for adult recipients after HCT -Postexposure prophylaxis for HCT recipients, regardless of vaccination status -Prophylaxis against bacterial infections. IDSA Recommendations : Immediate-release : Early Lyme disease: mg orally once a day for 7 to 10 days Comment: Use should be reserved for patients who are intolerant or should not take amoxicillin, doxycycline, and cefuroxime axetil.
Use: Alternative treatment for early Lyme disease. IDSA Recommendations : Immediate-release: to mg orally once on day 1, followed by mg orally once a day for a total of 7 to 10 days Comments: -This drug should be taken in combination with atovaquone.
Use: Treatment of babesiosis. Use: Treatment of Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis. NIH Recommendations : Immediate-release : Campylobacteriosis : -Mild to moderate disease: mg orally once a day for 5 days Shigellosis : -Alternative therapy: mg orally once a day for 5 days Comment: This drug should not be used to treat Shigella or Campylobacter bacteremia.
Uses : -Treatment of gastroenteritis caused by Shigella infection -Treatment of mild to moderate campylobacteriosis. NIH Recommendations : Immediate-release: -Alternative treatment: 2 g orally as a single dose Comments: -This drug may be given to patients with penicillin allergies. Use: Alternative therapy for the treatment of early stage syphilis, including primary, secondary, and early latent stage syphilis.